Egg donation is a fertility treatment in which a woman’s eggs are extracted and donated to another woman who is unable to produce healthy eggs. Egg donation is a method often used in cases of female infertility and typically involves the process of in vitro fertilization, or IVF, in which the eggs are fertilized in a laboratory. Unfertilized eggs are sometimes frozen and stored for later use by the intended parents. Egg donation is a form of assisted reproductive technology and is often performed to…
A hysteroscopy is a procedure, using a tool called a hysteroscope to examine the lining of the uterus and identify, diagnose or treat abnormalities.
Reasons for a Hysteroscopy
A hysteroscopy may be performed to determine the cause of:
- Abnormal bleeding
- Bleeding after menopause
It may also be used to diagnose and remove fibroids or polyps and find and reposition an intrauterine device…
Gestational surrogacy, also known as third-party reproduction, uses the assistance of a surrogate to carry a pregnancy to term. A surrogate is a woman who is implanted with a fertilized egg using in vitro fertilization, or IVF, on behalf of another individual or couple. Unlike classic surrogacy where a surrogate is inseminated with…
Reproductive endocrinology is a subspecialty of obstetrics and gynecology that addresses hormonal functioning as it relates to reproduction and infertility. In addition to treating infertility issues, reproductive endocrinologists are trained to evaluate and treat other hormonal dysfunctions in females and males. Many couples facing infertility problems choose to see a reproductive endocrinologist when deciding upon fertility treatments.
During the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF) multiple embryos (fertilized eggs) are often created. After the desired number of embryos is implanted in the uterus, there may be embryos left over and the decision may be made to have them cryopreserved (frozen) for use at a later date. If there have been previous infertility problems, or if the first implantation procedure is not successful, one or more of these embryos may be used in the future…
When would a couple or individual choose IVF treatment?
In vitro fertilization, or IVF, may be recommended if a couple has been unsuccessful at trying to conceive a child for over a period of one year and may include a partner who may have any of the following conditions:
- Low sperm count
- Problems with ovulation
- Fallopian tube damage or blockage
- Previous tubal ligation or sterilization
- Uterine fibroids
- Unexplained infertility
Couples who have been experiencing infertility issues for an extended period of time may choose to undergo an evaluation to determine the cause of their problem with fertility. An infertility evaluation may be performed to determine the source of infertility and diagnostic tests may also be used to..
Surrogacy, also known as third-party reproduction, uses the assistance of a surrogate to carry a pregnancy to term. Surrogacy is an alternative to adoption for couples who are unable to become pregnant on their own and want to have a child. It is an option for women who are incapable of carrying a pregnancy to term, have other medical conditions that may affect fertility, or have suffered repeated miscarriages. It may also…
An embryonic biopsy is the removal of genetic material from an embryo that has been created through in vitro fertilization (IVF). It is used to determine serious genetic defects through preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Cells are removed from each developing embryo for analysis so that only embryos free of dangerous mutations will be implanted. This prevents the continuing growth of an embryo carrying a disabling, possibly fatal, disease.
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, or ICSI, is a procedure which involves injecting sperm directly into an egg to improve the chances of fertilization. The egg is then grown in a laboratory for a few days before it is implanted directly into the woman’s uterus. With ICSI, only a single healthy sperm is needed for each egg. This procedure is often performed in cases where the sperm cannot penetrate the outer layer, or cytoplasm, of the egg. ICSI may be used to increase the chances of fertilization with an in vitro fertilization, or IVF procedure…
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis, or PGD, is a diagnostic procedure that is used to detect genetic changes in embryos that are created using assisted reproductive techniques such as in-vitro fertilization. PGD can reduce the risk of having a child with a particular genetic or chromosomal disorder. In-vitro fertilization involves…
Intrauterine insemination, also known as artificial insemination or IUI, is a solution to infertility. Prior to insemination, women are often given medication to stimulate multiple egg development. The male partner’s sperm is artificially inseminated into the woman’s uterine cavity in hopes of fertilizing an egg. A semen specimen is produced and then “washed” to separate the sperm from other components before being placed into the uterus…
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome, also known as PCOS, is a condition that affects a woman’s ovaries. The causes of polycystic ovary syndrome are unknown but it is known that between 5 percent to 10 percent of the women in the United States are affected by this condition. It is the leading cause of infertility in women…
Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive after 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse. Infertility may be attributed to the man, the woman, or both partners. Infertility does not mean that a couple is sterile and will never have a child. Approximately half of all couples who seek help for infertility will eventually conceive a child. There are several treatments available that may help to improve the chances of a conception and a successful pregnancy…
Ovulation induction is a procedure in which medication is used to stimulate a woman’s ovaries to ovulate and produce eggs. Ovulation induction commonly uses fertility drugs to stimulate the follicles in the ovaries in order to produce multiple eggs during each menstrual cycle. This process is often performed as a fertility treatment. With additional control over the timing of egg release, there is a significant increase in the likelihood of fertilization.
Recurrent Pregnancy Loss
Women who have had three or more miscarriages may be experiencing a condition known as recurrent pregnancy loss, a troubling diagnosis that presents both physical and emotional concerns for couples. The exact cause of a miscarriage is not always known, however, most miscarriages that occur in the first trimester of pregnancy are often caused by chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus. While most cases of miscarriage are isolated occurrences, multiple miscarriages may be due to other underlying physical factors. …
A hysterosonography is an ultrasound with an infusion of saline. Hysterosonography, also known as sonohysterography, incorporates a screening process that checks for intrauterine abnormalities for those couples with infertility problems. An ultrasound image is produced that views the uterine cavity…
Tuboplasty is a surgical procedure performed on the fallopian tubes. It is often necessary to remove a blockage in one of the tubes that may occur either near where the tube meets the uterus or toward the end of the tube. Fallopian tube blockages may be caused by the formation of scar tissue, an infection or as a result of an earlier surgery…
For many couples, family balancing is part of family planning. They want to have a family that includes at least one son and one daughter. Historically, couples often had large families for several reasons: secure methods of contraception were unavailable, infant mortality was high, and gender balance in offspring was desired.